This may be put down to the effective educational coverage of parish schools in lowland rural Scotland and the difficulties of the school system in keeping up with urban growth in the burgeoning cities in the nineteenth century. 821 Liverpool Chronicle, Saturday 31 October 1857. Only about 6.5 per cent were illiterate, more than one half were domestic servants of some kind and about eighty per cent were Presbyterian or undefined ‘Protestant’, with only ten per cent Roman Catholic. A number of convict ships had trouble with would-be mutineers, but only the Britannia’captain reacted to rumours with such savage ferocity. is adorned by image of a gum tree rising out of a stark red earth into a deep blue sky. The factors in Sutherland, however, did not accept this view. As far as the Lulan emigration is concerned, there is no question that the experience could not have been more trying or tragic for those involved. It is also clear that Beaton was killed by a man or men in the isolated community who may have lived in their midst for a great many years. 143-56. The Pretoria respondent had an overall favourable opinion of Castlereagh and construed that his negative attributes were compensated for by his straight-dealing. Keneally, T (2009) Origins to Eureka Allen & Unwin. 951 T.M. Increasingly, the two groups differed over issues relating to education and slavery, and over O’Connell’s apparent willingness to enter into an alliance with the British Whig Party.304 The disagreements came to a head in 1846 over the abstract principle regarding the use of physical force. 369 Smith O’Brien to O’Doherty, NLI, MS 10515 (3), 25 January 1851. 221 Diana M. Henderson, Highland Soldier: A Social Study of the Highland Regiments, 1820-1920 (Edinburgh: John Donald, 1989), p. 5; John Prebble, Mutiny: Highland Regiments in Revolt 1743-1804 (London: Penguin, 1975), pp. In 1860 Fowler then began production of six-inch diameter drainpipes, edging tiles, bricks, chimney pots and laundry tubs. Where ancestry and race are important to primordialists, situationalists view them as over-rated, perhaps even morally retrograde, group symbols which are best put to one side or best forgotten. diss., University of Ottawa, 1997). A gale blew for eight days and the French were unable to land. This overbearing, indeed totalitarian, conception of culture could well have been described by Deleuze and Guattari themselves: Strike the pose or follow the axis, genetic stage or structural destiny – one way or the other, your rhizome will be broke. Even simple and traditional remedies such as variolisation had been allowed to lapse in the Highlands and Islands just as soon as smallpox epidemics had been eradicated6. On 6 March, local constables reported that the grave was empty and the body had likely been removed by the Anglican church people, given the threats and intimidation received from that quarter. The first in 1849, a year after the departure of his son, celebrated the news they had received in Charlestown from New South Wales regarding the arrival of his son. Meagher was also lonely for female companionship. They were successful pioneers but ";a large number . Women were assaulted on Saturday evenings as they strolled downtown streets, Sunday mornings on their way home from church, and weekday afternoons when they returned from school or work.561. At the start, in 1852, there was probably an excess of demand for emigration passages, as at North Uist where the agent Chant had to reject ‘almost as many emigrants as he could take.’111 But by 1854 the demand had wavered and declined, probably related to the return of better seasons and prices. Yet, despite the absence of Ribbonism and the introduction of denominational sharing of offices and patronage in politics, ethnic tensions continued on the ground in Conception Bay and there was an increasing segregation of Catholic and Protestant communities. 534 Lucille Campey, The Silver Chief: Lord Selkirk and the Scottish Pioneers of Belfast, Baldoon and the Red River, (Toronto: Natural Heritage/Natural History Inc., 2003), p. 10. Nearby, on Verge’s Lane, Orange marshal Eli Verge had planted a large yellow sign with black letters proclaiming “No Surrender!” before joining his fellow Orangemen at church that morning. The remaining five pushed on until they ran out of rations. He shaved off his whiskers and disguised himself as a priest. 609 This overview of the mutilation of Herman Lott is based on the following sources: The Star and Conception Bay Journal, 13 and 20 May, 3, 10, and 24 June, and 1 and 8 July 1840; Public Ledger, 19 and 22 May 1840; various correspondence between Harbour Grace magistrates and Crowdy, May 1840, GN 2/2, PANL; Arrest Warrant for Lawrence Dulhanty, 15 May 1840, Examinations of Thomas Keefe, David Connors, Peter Keefe, James Clancey, 15 May 1840, and Examination of Matilda McGrath, undated but ca. 234 On invasion fears, NLS, Melville Mss. Elders or the officiating minister publicly castigated members of the congregation for any real or perceived transgressions. 127-138. Hence when the 71st left Cork in 1824 after two years’ of duty in small detachments, dispersed across southern Ireland, it received testimonials of thanks ‘from all classes of the population… including both Protestant and Roman Catholic clergy…’263. 483The network also included Robert Quigley, ‘Switcher’ Donnelly, Valentine Derry, Burke Rice and Robert Campbell. At Toongabbie he was told the rebels were on the hill behind the house of Doctor Martin Mason, the officiating surgeon at many floggings. Place has three necessary and sufficient features - location, materiality and meaning. 2, James Wilson, John MacIntyre, Archibald MacLeod, Ann MacIntyre and Ann MacAulay each in receipt of £1 10s; and for King’s County Dist. High-quality Ac men's t-shirts designed and sold by independent artists around the world. "; she cried. Tenants who habitually fell behind on rents and who continued to have large families could bankrupt the best-heeled of landlords. The candid calculation of prospects in the district was clear enough, even when the good times returned. Meanwhile ‘The Gairloch people are getting poorer and poorer every day’, he reported. The ‘criminal under-class’ versus ‘ordinary workers’ dichotomy is overdone. Many of the roots of Celtic primordialism would in their day have been significant events and aspects of culture but have lost their meaning to the average Celt today, and little of them are taught in schools or at the mother’s knee. A random sample of occupations of Scots transported to Western Australia includes a surgeon, a law student, a special pleader solicitor (whom no-one in Perth would employ), tailor, joiner, two bakers, collier, two shoemakers, labourer, tinsmith, printer, groom, clerk, labourer and soldier, cabinet-maker and soldier, and woodcutter and soldier. The relevance of this particular example is that Finno-Ugric racial origin is highly distinctive, easily distinguishable from other racial types, unlike Scotland or Ireland where racial origin is much more of a hybrid. The Isle of Skye had one of the lowest rates of illegitimate births in Scotland in 1861 (at 10 to 12 illegitimate births per thousand) so it is probable that Beaton was treated as something of an outcast in the Rear Settlement, for being an unwed mother and for having borne a child by unidentified man. It is difficult to suppress the thought that, even at the time, judgements were clouded by ignorance. 946 For the concept of ‘interpretive communities’, see Kim C. Schroder, ‘Audience semiotics, Interpretive Communities and the ‘Ethnographic Turn’ in Media Research, Media Culture and Society, 16(2), 1994, pp. 193 NLS, Dep. This was the broader setting for the Fenian scare in Port de Grave. Census of Ireland 1901, 1911. Still, the society was not unlike that of Counties Antrim and Down as it too had a strong Scottish, Presbyterian heritage. He presumably named his son, Murdoch, who was Ann’s brother, after himself. 738 NSW Legislative Council Votes and Proceedings 1838. 2, 1997, pp. In 1980 his autobiography titled The Man They Couldn’t Break was published. 687 See, for example, R. Evans & W. Thorpe, „Power, Punishment and Penal Labour: Convict Workers and Moreton Bay,‟ Australian Historical Studies, 25, 98 (April 1992), pp. As a director of the bank and thus responsible for its debts, he was forced to leave the colony for four years, from 1845 until 1849. Quite apart from his dislike of the Jacobite cause, MacKay had became disaffected from his fellow countrymen after his two older brothers were murdered under very suspicious circumstances. Most of all the 1814 evictions of the small communities living in Strathnaver, in the heart of the estate, became notoriously controversial; Patrick Sellar, the factor responsible for implementing the plans, was charged with arson and homicide and subsequently acquitted in 1816 in a trial whose verdict posterity has overturned. Almost immediately, ethnic claims were staked and boundary lines drawn in Conception Bay, where the two ethnic groups jostled for access to land and the fishery. She noted no national distinctions, although it may be significant that the Scots were disproportionately represented amongst her examples of incorrigibles.679. 322 The trial of the young and dashing Meagher attracted the most attention. In sum, there is no evidence in the first decade of the Gordon of Cluny regime in Benbecula of any consistent clearance activity. The doctor then directed the next hundred to be inflicted lower down, which reduced his flesh to such a jelly that the doctor ordered him to have the remaining hundred on the calves of his legs. 71-72. 848 Green, O.S. They wrote petitions of clemency to Government House, all to no avail. 93 Their choices expressed the differential in land availability between the Highlands and the colonies, and also the sheer adventurousness of the men involved. Like Sir John McNeill, Roger McNeill graduated in medicine from Edinburgh University where he studied surgery under Joseph Lister and physic under Thomas Grainger Stewart, physician to Queen Victoria. They were from dispersed parts of the globe and all were fifth-generation descendants of emigrants from Ireland. The grass is now gradually gaining on the sand and in course of a few years it will probably be a plot of good grass pasture. Roderick’s eldest daughter, Chirsty, married in Benbecula and had children who survived the famine years of 1846-8. Taken together, these factors probably go a long way to explain why it took six weeks to procure a passage for the shanghaied Benbecula migrants. Ambrose took no part in this revolt and still serving his sentence, perhaps living in a little wattle-and-daub hut with Mary Creswell. John Mitchel, Jail Journal or Five years in British Prisons (New York: Citizen, 1854), pp.12-13. 1 (March 2009): 29-70. This period of high unemployment, declining cod catches, and a series of poor growing seasons helped feed the intensity of the conversation at ground level, and it is within this context that we must examine the strange case of John Moxley of Carbonear—one of the larger towns in the bay with a mixed religious population throughout the nineteenth century.599, Moxley was a local Catholic planter and, like other owners of fishing premises of the period, was increasingly feeling the pinch of tight economic times. We are part of them and they are part of us; they are bound up in our thinking and feeling about our place in our daily lives and are vibrant with meaning.786. The orthodoxy of the Free Church of Scotland and the MacDonaldites isolated them from other groups of Highland Scots and intermarriage with outside groups was difficult. In the days and weeks that followed the Ballingarry rising, the British pressmocked those who had supported the Rising, particularly O’Brien. His speech made no mention of markers or mawkish themes around racial origin, travails or golden age. To copperseal this policy, a contract between the Government and the Ship’s Master prohibited taking people from the colony without the Governor’s permission.510 Chances of re-contacting a spouse were very unlikely but people of good conduct could have their families sponsored as long as they could keep them financially. Again, though, this study reaffirmed that Scottish courts were reluctant to hand out life sentences, except for murder, and more had seven year sentences than the English.692, Joy Damousi’s 1997 study of female convicts and gender and sexuality issues concludes that the ‘stories point to the ways in which understandings about sexual and racial difference were crucial for both the maintenance and disturbance of colonial society’.693 Some of the stories are about Scotswomen but, oddly, unlike the Irish, these women seem to have had no ethnicity imputed to them at all. (1960) Presbyterianism in Lisburn from the Seventeenth Century: First Lisburn Presbyterian Church available at http:///books/presbyterianism_lisburn/presbyterian1.htm accessed 1 January 2004. One obvious answer is that if ‘Irish’ is such a worthwhile category to most of the scholars in this field, why is ‘Scottish’ not even slightly worthwhile? I am prepared to hear it. Governor Bourke summed up very well the attitudes of Coghill and others: The Magistrates, who feel the diminution of their power [Bourke’s new Summary Jurisdiction] as a grievance, may perhaps have been excited to expressions of complaint by the annoyance, to which in their character of settlers they are exposed from the misconduct of their Assigned Servants. They shattered every article of furniture, doors, windows etc. Harold was implicated in the plot. 94. 313, 1188, James Loch to 2nd Duke, 29 Mar. He spurned all these, yet he felt compelled to protest against jury packing with his co-religionists. Even the way that she greets the killer is suggestive that her innocence may be corrupt and that this is more of a tryst than a chance encounter: ";perhaps she was happy to meet him, /And smiled on him gaily to greet him"; (ll. Enoch lost his wife and daughter on the journey out but, undeterred by these setbacks, he established a small pottery in 1837 and married Jane Lucas in 1838. After the inquest, the body was buried in the local graveyard, presumably in Kinross but, when Bourke conducted his inquiry some eleven days after the murder, it was exhumed. Erracht had to recruit throughout the British Isles and Graham sent recruiting parties out in London, Manchester, Nottingham, Shrewsbury and Leicester. It appears from his injuries that Cole-Hamilton was mounted. It was spartan living and the Board of Health reported ‘the Highland passengers are very scantily clad and the majority of them are in extreme poverty’. Coghill again put his own interests first in the case of Maria Buttle, an Irish girl from Antrim, from whom he withheld his signature on her application for a conditional pardon. 483 Smyth, Jim, The men of no property (1994) p.119. She was the only Scot on board without priors, but was sentenced to seven years for taking a child for one night. Papers 1884 [C.3980 I-IV], xxxii-xxxvi), [hereafter Napier Commission Evidence], 1605, 1597, 1628, 1649. McDonald was still complaining about his landlord but the accession of Sir Kenneth Mackenzie led him to hope that ‘people will be more honourably dealt with than they were.’126. Murdo MacLeod headed for Prince Edward Island with unmarried members of his family but four others, already married, settled in Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Ontario, a daughter Anne, married to Alexander MacCormick dying at sea en route to East Williams Twp, Middlesex County, ONT in 1849. The overflow from the penitentiary could then be sent abroad. I disagree. It was one of the many ironies of the system that the greater part of the punishment fell on the convicts who had been sent to penal stations on the orders of the magistrate’s bench. 55, October 1970, pp. Broken down even more, it would have reflected in age-structure, average household sizes, age of marriage, proportions of never-married and occupational structure. Because of the injury he tried to resume his journey by coach, only to become almost incapacitated in the attempt. Commandant Cuthbertson appeared splendid in his red tailored coatee with its high, decorated collar and epaulettes, his arms sporting gilt buttoned regimental cuffs. This book is about the work of science fiction writer Paolo Bacigalupi, and is a companion to the Paolo Bacigalupi (ology) website and collects the content found at the site. Despite the fact that Colonsay was not spared the effects of the famine of 1845-48, Sir John did not even visit while on his tour of twenty seven parishes throughout the Highlands but declared nonetheless that his homeland was “one of the least stricken”.34 The islanders might have expected more from someone who had friends in high places - Sir John McNeill was a close friend of Lord Palmerston, himself a landowner in Ireland who was soon to be Prime Minister - but McNeill was the son of the Old Laird who was also high-handed. 786 Entrikin, J.N. The type of person that Bourke had in mind were ‘ married couples under thirty years of age and their families, and unmarried females between 15 and 30 years who shall come out under the protection of the married couple as forming part of the Family and destined to remain with it until otherwise provided for; and single men between 18 and 25 in the same numbers as the unmarried females last mentioned’. I am here ready to die. 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